25/10/20 – Galatians 5:22-26
Last week we looked at the works of the flesh, those works that in opposition to the fruit of the Spirit in our lives.
Galatians 5:17 – For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.
Now we look at the fruit of the Spirit, that which Christians should have in abundance in their lives.
Galatians 5:22-23 – 22But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, 23Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.
fruit – karpos (fruit – of trees, vines, fields; fruit of one’s loins – progeny, posterity; a result; work; act; deed; advantage; profit) In this sense it could be seen as the consequences of having the Spirit in our lives.
karpos is also translated “fruit” in John 15:16 – Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you, and ordained you, that ye should go and bring forth fruit, and [that] your fruit should remain: that whatsoever ye shall ask of the Father in my name, he may give it you.
Because of the consistency of scriptural teaching, we should assume that “fruit’ is used in John 15:16 in much that same way as it is in Galatians 5:22. (Note “the Comforter” in John 15:26) This is interesting if we also note that Judas was one of those to whom Jesus was speaking in John 15:16, and that John 15 commences with Jesus teaching about the vine (as Himself) and the branches which must bear fruit or be pruned off. Thus, if Judas is one of those who were chosen to bear fruit here (he was indeed one of them!), was he subsequently pruned off due to his lack of fruit? Remember that Jesus later (in His prayer of John 17) said that He had kept all those who had been given to Him, except Judas.
John 17:12 – While I was with them in the world, I kept them in thy name: those that thou gavest me I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the son of perdition (Judas); that the scripture might be fulfilled.
While we have the works of the flesh, we now have the fruit of the Spirit. The use of both terms – “works” (of the flesh) and “fruit” (of the Spirit) – appears to be effectively similar. Works (ergon – work; deed; labour) are the actions or deeds carried out by those who are slaves to the flesh, the old man sin nature. These works are the consequence of the flesh nature within. In similar fashion, the fruit of the Spirit is the consequence of the Spirit in our lives. We may know a person by his deeds (or fruit) just as we may know a tree by the fruit it bears.
James 3:12 – Can the fig tree, my brethren, bear olive berries? either a vine, figs? so [can] no fountain both yield salt water and fresh.
The works of the flesh lead to death (through the condemnation of the law) but those who are led by the Spirit put to death (mortify) the works (deeds) of the flesh (body).
Romans 8:13-14 – 13For if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die: but if ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live. 14For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God.
Note that “fruit” is a singular noun, as it is also in Ephesians 5:9 (For the fruit of the Spirit [is] in all goodness and righteousness and truth;). This strongly suggests that, even though the works of the flesh may often be seen individually, the fruit of the Spirit is one entity, a oneness that embodies all parts working together as one (1 Corinthians 12:12). This is an aspect of the body of Christ, the Church, that is taught clearly: that all are built together as one on the foundation of Christ, such that many individuals become one in Christ.
Ephesians 2:20-22 – 20And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner [stone]; 21In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord: 22In whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit.
Note these phrases:
(a) fitly framed together – synarmologeo (many parts put together to become one unit)
(b) are builded together – synoikodomeo (many parts put together to build into one building)
Each of these terms forms a synthesis, that is, many parts put together to form one complete unit. Note also that they “are builded together” “through the Spirit”.
All things to do with the Spirit are going to be harmonious, a one-ness that puts all things together into order (and not the confusion of the works of the flesh). It can be said that confusion is a jumble of unrelated events but order is where all events work together as one.
Thus the fruit of the Spirit has to be seen as one single fruit with many different aspects of that fruit. Each part acts together with each other part to enhance each other such that it would be a lessening of the fruit to miss out on one or more of its aspects. Take away love and 1 Corinthians 13 clearly demonstrates that everything else becomes worthless. Take away joy and we can no longer rejoice in the Lord, something we must do without ceasing – always (Philippians 4:4). And it is impossible to consider a Christian who does not have God’s peace in his life (John 14:27). And so on. Just remove but one aspect of the fruit of the Spirit and the rest have all been rendered impotent. Therefore the fruit of the Spirit must be seen as a whole and not the sum of 9 individual parts.
In the same way, it is all the attributes of God presented as one whole that describes God Himself. God is not just love, or justice, or righteousness, or holy etc, but all these parts put together into one whole. The Holy Spirit works together with our spirits to demonstrate that we are truly the children of God.
Romans 8:16 – The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God:
Romans 8:26 – Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities: for we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered. helpeth – synantilambanomai (to lay hold of together with others; to strive to obtain help together with others; to take hold of together with others) synantilambanomai is a word indicating many parts acting together (in unison) as one whole.
Now we’ll look at the 9 aspects of the fruit of the Spirit.
love (agape) – agape love generally refers to the love that God has for man, and thus the love Christians have for God and for other Christians; it also includes the love Christians should have for the lost just as God loves the lost.
agapao – love, the verb form of agape (noun)
Romans 5:8 – But God commendeth his love (agape) toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.
Also see those great passages on agape/agapao love in 1 John 4:7 to 5:3, and 1 Corinthians 13 (where agape is translated as “charity” 9 times).
agapao (love) is the verb form of agape (noun)
agape / agapeo (noun and verb) are the most used NT words for “love”. Other Greek words are generally derived from “phileo” (“love”) in the NT, and include the following (with Strong’s number references):
(a) phileo (to love; show affection) 5368
(b) philagathos (lover of goodness; lover of good men) 5358
(c) philadelphia (brotherly or sisterly love; love of Christians for each other as brethren) 5360
(d) philargyria (love of money) 5365
(e) philandros (loving her husband) 5362 (It is interesting that when husbands are exhorted to love their wives (Ephesians 5:25) it uses “agape” love, while wives loving their husbands uses philandros (Titus 2:4).
(f) philoteknos (love of children) 5388
(g) philanthropia (love of mankind or humanity) 5363
(h) philautos (lovers of self) 5367
(i) philedonos (lovers of pleasure 5369
(j) philotheos (lovers of God) 5377
(k) Philologos (lover of the Word) a name 5378
(l) philoneikia (lover of strife) 5379
(m) philonexia (love to strangers, hospitality) 5381
(n) philoproteuo (love to have the pre-eminence) 5383
(o) philosophia (love of wisdom) 5385
(p) philostorgos (the mutual love of parents and children and wives and husbands) 5387
(q) philotimeomai (from a love of honour to strive to bring something to pass; ambitious) 5389
Another “love” word is thelo 2309 (to be fond of doing something; have pleasure in some activity) Translated “love” in Mark 12:38 (“Beware of the scribes, which love to go in long clothing)
storge (cherishing one’s kindred, especially parents or children) is another Greek word for “love” but is not used on its own in the NT. It is used once in combination with phileo to form philostorgos in Romans 12:10 (see list above).
There is another Greek word used for love: eros (meaning sexual love), from which we get our word “erotic”. This word is not found in the Bible, probably because by NT times this term was considered extremely vulgar and therefore would not have been acceptable for use in any Christian writings or speech.
joy (chara) – joy; gladness. A noun. It is not the same as happiness, as one may be unhappy yet still have joy.
Its verb equivalent is chairo (rejoice) as per Philippians 4:4.
In Romans 9:1-5 Paul wrote that he had “continual sorrow” in his heart, yet he could also write (in Philippians 4:4) that we are to “Rejoice in the Lord alway”. Therefore, if both sorrow and rejoicing are to be all the time, then, rather than oppose each other, they must actually complement each other.
Happiness is an emotion that is dependent upon our feelings at the time and may be felt by most (if not all) people at some time or other. However, the fruit of the Spirit attributes have to be instilled in us by the Spirit. People who carry out the works of the flesh may feel happy but they cannot have the joy of the Spirit without the input of the Spirit.
Even when facing extreme adversity, we should rejoice in the Lord.
Habakkuk 3:17-18 – 17Although the fig tree shall not blossom, neither [shall] fruit [be] in the vines; the labour of the olive shall fail, and the fields shall yield no meat; the flock shall be cut off from the fold, and [there shall be] no herd in the stalls: 18Yet I will rejoice in the Lord, I will joy in the God of my salvation.
There is an interdependence of parts of the fruit which must be true of all nine aspects of this fruit, and that can only be the consequence of being led by the Spirit.
While some of these attributes might appear to be demonstrated by many people at some time, it is only those who are walking in the Spirit who are able to demonstrate all the fruit as a whole.
Love may be an emotion felt by all people at some time, but agape love may only be demonstrated by those who are walking in the Spirit (Galatians 5:16).
Jesus experienced joy which He promised to His disciples.
John 15:11 – These things have I spoken unto you, that my joy (chara) might remain in you, and [that] your joy (chara) might be full.
Also note Jeremiah 15:16 – Thy words were found, and I did eat them; and thy word was unto me the joy and rejoicing of mine heart: for I am called by thy name, O Lord God of hosts.
Romans 14:17 – For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy (chara) in the Holy Ghost.
peace (eirene) – tranquility; peace; harmony; accord; security.
We get the name Irene from this Greek word.
The peace of God (and Christ) is not the same as that experienced by the world.
John 14:27 – Peace (eirene) I leave with you, my peace (eirene) I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid.
God’s people may have peace in a world which gave them tribulation.
John 16:33 – These things I have spoken unto you, that in me ye might have peace (eirene). In the world ye shall have tribulation: but be of good cheer; I have overcome the world.
Philippians 4:7 – And the peace (eirene) of God, which passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus.
Ephesians 2:14 – For he is our peace (eirene), who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition [between us];
Christ is known as the Prince of peace (Isaiah 9:6).
longsuffering (makrothymia) – patience; endurance; steadfastness; perseverance; forbearance; slowness in avenging wrongs.
Longsuffering is enduring patience in the face of opposition and provocation.
It is the longsuffering of God that has kept Him from destroying all (rightfully); and longsuffering leads God to offer us salvation instead of condemnation.
2 Peter 3:15a – And account [that] the longsuffering (makrothymia) of our Lord [is] salvation
And we must also demonstrate that same longsuffering with others …..
Ephesians 4:2 – With all lowliness and meekness, with longsuffering (makrothymia), forbearing one another in love;
….. even who would even seek to destroy us.
Matthew 5:44 – But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you;
It is translated “patience” in
Hebrews 6:12 – That ye be not slothful, but followers of them who through faith and patience (makrothymia) inherit the promises.
gentleness (chrestotes) – moral goodness; integrity; kindness.
chrestotes is derived from chrestos (fit for use; virtuous; good; manageable; pleasant; benevolent)
chrestos is translated “easy” in Matthew 11:30 (For my yoke [is] easy, and my burden is light.) and “better” in Luke 5:39 (No man also having drunk old [wine] straightway desireth new: for he saith, The old is better.)
chrestos is also translated “kind” (Ephesians 4:32), “gracious” (1 Peter 2:3), and “goodness” (Romans 2:4).
There is not a lot of difference between gentleness and goodness (see below). Gentleness could be seen as kindness toward others in the face of opposition.
1 Corinthians 13:4a – Charity (agape) suffereth long (makrothymeo – see “longsuffering” above), [and] is kind (chresteuomai);
Romans 12:20 – Therefore if thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink: for in so doing thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head.
Goodness, on the other hand, is a more positive aspect, a spirit of benevolence (see notes on “goodness” below).
Kindness (chrestotes) is an attribute of God, as is all the fruit of the Spirit
Titus 3:4 – But after that the kindness (chrestotes) and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared,
(“love …. toward man” is philanthropia)
goodness (agathosyne) – uprightness of heart and life; goodness; kindness.
As mentioned above, goodness is a beneficent aspect of our lives, the desire to do good for others; charitable works, a bit like the Salvation Army.
It is an attribute of God.
2 Thessalonians 1:11 – Wherefore also we pray always for you, that our God would count you worthy of [this] calling, and fulfil all the good pleasure of [his] goodness (agathosyne), and the work of faith with power:
We are to be full of that goodness.
Romans 15:14 – And I myself also am persuaded of you, my brethren, that ye also are full of goodness (agathosyne), filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish one another.
faith (pistis) – conviction of the truth of anything, belief; in the NT of a conviction or belief respecting man’s relationship to God and divine things, generally with the included idea of trust and holy fervour born of faith and joined with it.
It often refers to our faith (as trust) in God or Christ; that is, our response to the character of one who promises us salvation and other great and precious promises.
Ephesians 3:17a – That Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith (pistis)
It can also refer to what we believe, as in a statement of faith.
Jude 1:3 – Beloved, when I gave all diligence to write unto you of the common salvation, it was needful for me to write unto you, and exhort [you] that ye should earnestly contend for the faith (pistis) which was once delivered unto the saints.
In today’s passage “faith” would refer to our faith in God’s promises, especially salvation (Ephesians 1:15) and our trustworthiness in our dealings with others. We must trust God, and others must be able to trust us as Christians.
We must demonstrate good fidelity. Note that pistis is translated “fidelity” in Titus 2:9-10 – 9[Exhort] servants to be obedient unto their own masters, [and] to please [them] well in all [things]; not answering again; 10Not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity (pistis); that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things.
Paul follows this up somewhat in Galatians 6:10 – As we have therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all [men], especially unto them who are of the household of faith (pistis).
meekness (praotes) – gentleness; meekness; mildness.
It does not relate to weakness in any way, but may be seen as the equivalent of ruling with an iron rod yet with ultimate self-control (= temperance below), a controlled strength. It can also be described as a gentle submissiveness to God’s will, where we could rebel, but have controlled that rebellion through self-control (another fruit of the Spirit).
It’s just another example of the co-relationship of each of the parts of this fruit.
Titus 3:2 – To speak evil of no man, to be no brawlers, [but] gentle, shewing all meekness (praotes) unto all men.
Psalm 37:11 – But the meek shall inherit the earth; and shall delight themselves in the abundance of peace.
Matthew 11:29 – Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek (praus) and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls.
Ephesians 4:2-3 – 2With all lowliness and meekness (praotes), with longsuffering (makrothymia), forbearing one another in love (agape); 3Endeavouring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace (eirene).
temperance (egkrateia) – self-control (the virtue of one who masters his desires and passions, especially his sensual appetites)
Derived from egkrates (strong; robust; having power over; mastering; controlling; curbing; restraining; controlling one’s self; temperate)
This fruit refers to an act of our will that strives to demonstrate the fruit of the Spirit through the suppression of the works of the flesh.
1 Corinthians 9:25a – And every man that striveth for the mastery (agonizomai – to contend with adversaries; fight) is temperate (egkrateuomai) in all things.
(We get our word “agonise” from agonizomai; and our word “agony” derives from agonia.)
Acts 24:24-25 – 24And after certain days, when Felix came with his wife Drusilla, which was a Jewess, he sent for Paul, and heard him concerning the faith in Christ. 25And as he reasoned of righteousness, temperance (egkrateia), and judgment to come, Felix trembled, and answered, Go thy way for this time; when I have a convenient season, I will call for thee.
2 Peter 1:5-8 – 5And beside this, giving all diligence, add to your faith (pistis) virtue; and to virtue knowledge; 6And to knowledge temperance (egkrateia); and to temperance (egkrateia) patience; and to patience godliness; 7And to godliness brotherly kindness; and to brotherly kindness charity (agape). 8For if these things be in you, and abound, they make [you that ye shall] neither [be] barren nor unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ.
against such there is no law – In Galatians 5:18 (But if ye be led of the Spirit, ye are not under the law.) they have been told that those who are led by the Spirit (walking in the Spirit as per Galatians 5:16) are no longer under the law. That is, they are no longer under the condemnation of the law (Romans 8:1-2).
The law was never meant to be applied to righteous people.
1 Timothy 1:9a – Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient
Of course, Christians can and do still sin because they still have the old sin nature.
Romans 7:25 – I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then with the mind I myself serve the law of God; but with the flesh the law of sin.
But in Galatians 5:23 Paul is teaching that not one of the fruit of the Spirit breaks the law. Having the fruit of the Spirit represents righteousness, and there is no law that can accuse people of righteousness, let alone condemn them for it!
Galatians 5:24 – And they that are Christ’s have crucified the flesh with the affections and lusts.
And – or “Moreover” or “But”
the affections – pathema (that which one suffers; suffering; misfortune; calamity; evil; affliction; inward affliction; passion)
We get “pathology” from this word. “Ancient Greek pathologia was "study of the passions;" the Greek word for "science of diseases" was pathologike ("pathologics").” (etymonline.com)
pathema derives from pathos (calamity; mishap; evil; affliction; a feeling which the mind suffers; emotion; passion; passionate deed) That is, pathos refers to our feelings and emotions. We get “pathos” from this word. Pathos means “the quality or power in an actual life experience or in literature, music, speech, or other forms of expression, of evoking a feeling of pity, or of sympathetic and kindly sorrow or compassion.” (dictionary.com)
lusts – epithymia (desire; craving; longing; desire for what is forbidden; lust)
This word was used also in Galatians 5:16 – [This] I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust (epithymia) of the flesh. where it is associated with the forbidden desires of the flesh.
“Moreover, they who are Christ’s have crucified (put to death) the flesh (human nature, the earthly nature of man apart from divine influence, and therefore prone to sin and opposed to God) along with our evil passions and craving for forbidden pleasures.”
Romans 6:6 – Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with [him], that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin.
Paul reminded the Galatians of this crucifying of the flesh when we are saved.
Galatians 2:20 – I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me.
Galatians 5:25 – If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit.
If we live in the Spirit – or “If we live by (or according to) the Spirit”. This refers to those who are indwelt by the Spirit (1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Corinthians 6:19-20).
walk in the Spirit – See notes on “walk in the Spirit” in Galatians 5:16 where “walk” means our whole manner of living, our life, the Way of Christ.
If we thus live in the Spirit (because we are in Christ), then we should also live our lives according to the requirements of the Spirit. These requirements have been listed above as the fruit of the Spirit. If we do not demonstrate this fruit of the Spirit in our lives, then it may be questioned as to whether or not we are actually “in the Spirit”.
Our daily walk of our life must be by faith in Christ who saved us.
Galatians 3:11-12 – 11But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, [it is] evident: for, The just shall live by faith. 12And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.
And such a life is not by the law (which is not of faith) but by faith.
And we walk by faith in what we have been promised and not according to the logic of what we see.
For we walk by faith, not by sight. (2 Corinthians 5:7)
Romans 14:7-8 – 7For none of us liveth to himself, and no man dieth to himself. 8For whether we live, we live unto the Lord; and whether we die, we die unto the Lord: whether we live therefore, or die, we are the Lord’s.
Galatians 5:26 – Let us not be desirous of vain glory, provoking one another, envying one another.
desirous of vain glory – kenodoxos – adjective (glorying without reason; conceited; vain glorious; eager for empty glory) This is its only NT occurrence.
It is derived from kenos (empty; vain; devoid of truth) + doxa (glory; brightness; magnificence; excellence; pre-eminence; dignity; grace; majesty; the absolute perfection of God; a most glorious condition; most exalted state)
provoking – or “irritating”
It may be said that one who is stronger provokes another, while the one who is weaker (or considers himself weaker) may merely actively envy (because of their perceived lack of ability to be aggressive).
Thus, “Let us not be so conceited that we think ourselves better than we are, thus aggressively provoking others, or letting jealously ruin our Christian testimony.”
Philippians 2:3 – [Let] nothing [be done] through strife or vainglory; but in lowliness of mind let each esteem other better than themselves. where “vainglory” is kenodoxia – (vain glory; self-esteem; empty pride; a vain opinion) This is the noun form of kenodoxos and is its only occurrence in the NT as well.
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